Posted in Exotics General Pets on Dec 04, 2023 | no responses.

Many of the things that make the holidays enjoyable for people can be harmful to our pets. Data indicates that emergency visits to animal clinics escalate from Thanksgiving through the New Year holiday. Here are some reminders to keep your pets safe and healthy.

Holiday Decorations – Consider pets when decorating. Dogs and cats are attracted to shiny objects like tinsel and glass bulbs and may chew on and swallow objects that require emergency care and surgery. Supervise animals around lighted Christmas trees and secure and inspect electrical wires daily. Avoid using food for decorations. Popcorn and cranberries strung on thread or string, for example, are a choking hazard for dogs and cats and can cause intestinal blockages which can be life-threatening.

Adoptable CAPIC Cat Magic

Food and Treats – Your dog might find rich, high-fat foods such as turkey skin, butter and other ingredients used in baking are tasty treats, but these same foods can also make your dog very ill. Please be mindful and keep fatty table scraps, human baked goods, and candy away from pets, and discourage house guests from feeding pets as well. Other common offenders are chicken bones, fried chicken, dry brownie mix, and foil-wrapped chocolate. Treat your pet instead to foods and baked goods made especially for them that are pet-safe.

Cold Weather Caution: When temperatures dip below 40 degrees, dog owners should limit outside exposure for puppies, senior pets, and pets with diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, and arthritis. Cold weather may worsen some medical conditions, and those pets with hormonal imbalances such as Cushing’s disease may have a harder time regulating their body temperature and may be more susceptible to problems from temperature extremes. Make sure you alert your veterinarian of any unusual or worsening symptoms during the winter. An exam may be in order, and therapy and/or medications may be prescribed to help your pet feel better during the cold winter months.

When walking your dog, remember that rough terrain, snow, ice, and road salt can cause paws to bleed and crack. Be mindful and protect your pets’ paws with boots while keeping them warm with sweaters and jackets. Clean and inspect paws when back inside and make sure no ice or ice melt remains on their paws.

In case of Emergency – Keep details of who to call and where to find help handy so all family members and even guests know what to do in case a pet ingests a foreign object or shows signs of illness. Visit Reasons to Call Your Veterinarian Immediately and find details for the Pet Poison Helpline and nearby Emergency Clinics on our Pet Emergency website page.

Belle Mead Animal Hospital, Your Other Family Doctors

BMAH Cat and Dog
Posted in General Pets News Veterinary Medicine on Nov 30, 2023 | no responses.

Currently we are seeing our typical cases of seasonal upper respiratory diseases that are more prevalent around the holidays each year. We have had some cases of prolonged coughing despite treatment in dogs that are otherwise normal, and we have had a few cases with pneumonia that required hospitalization. We would like to stress that this is in line with what we have seen in previous years during this season.

Puppy Face

At this writing, there have been confirmed outbreaks of respiratory diseases in other states with an unknown cause that seems to be affecting some dogs very rapidly, resulting in severe pneumonia.

We do not know what the cause is of this severe disease, but multiple labs are working on this. We will update you when more information is available, but also would like to remind you that Bordetella and canine influenza, as well as many other common respiratory pathogens are still out there and result in some of these same symptoms.

If your dog is coughing, please contact us. IF we determine that an appointment is necessary, we will ask that you keep your dog in the car. We recommend all dogs be up to date with Bordetella and canine influenza vaccines. IF your dog has been coughing, EVERY dog in your household should stay home and avoid contact with other dogs for at least 10-14 days after the LAST COUGH. We recommend avoiding boarding and day care options if at all possible, and recommend against any public gatherings like dog parks.

In the hospital and when out and about, please do not allow your dogs to greet each other, or share water or toys.

There was an informative Facebook broadcast produced by our friends at Trupanion with lots of current information on the respiratory diseases we are seeing! It’s over an hour long, but worth watching! Visit k9illness.trupanion.com for access.

Belle Mead Animal Hospital, Your Other Family Doctors

BMAH Cat and Dog
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Posted in General Pets News Veterinary Medicine on Oct 25, 2023 | no responses.

We are very excited to be one of the early roll out clinics for the newest FDA approved product for dogs with Osteoarthritis – Librela!

Librela is a once a month injection for dogs that have arthritis – and this is not a drug, but a monoclonal antibody biologic that mimics your dog’s natural cells!

We are so excited to get this product, which has been available in Europe for two years! And we have been very happy with the feline counterpart, Solensia!

You can read about Librela here – https://www.zoetispetcare.com/products/librela

If you are interested in having your dog treated, let us know at your next appointment!

Belle Mead Animal Hospital, Your Other Family Doctors!

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Posted in Exotics General Pets Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Services on Sep 14, 2023 | no responses.

We often remind our clients of the necessity of regular dental care for their pets. Dental and oral disease is by far the number one problem experienced by our pets. More than 70% of dogs and cats have some form of periodontal disease (gum or tooth problems) that starts as early as three years of age. Smaller dogs and cats tend to have more dental disease than larger dogs. Exotic companion mammals such as rabbits, rats and guinea pigs may also require dental care.

The biggest and most common reason that pets do not receive dental care they need is because pets rarely show obvious signs of pain or problems until extremely late stages of dental disease have set in. Our beloved pets feel dental pain and discomfort, but unfortunately they suffer in silence.

A second reason pets often don’t receive the dental care they need is because their pet parents may fear putting them under anesthesia.

In order to illustrate just what can happen to a pet when dental care is delayed, I’d like to introduce you to a dog who was adopted by a very proactive pet parent who recognized the need for immediate treatment.

Case Study:

Our dental case was a dog adopted from a shelter. Little was known about his background. He was a stray that the shelter rescued off the street who was in a state of extreme neglect.  He was only with the shelter a few of weeks before his new owner adopted him.

For the first few weeks, he was eating a soft diet.  At night, or when he was resting, his pet parent began to suspect he was in pain only because his mouth would constantly be moving as if he were chewing something or feeling his teeth with his tongue (like a slight, constant grinding motion).  He would also have a sad look on his face whenever he was at rest. She also noticed his breath was so bad that she could smell him from across the room. Bad breath is created by bacteria and infection.

Upon my initial examination, I determined that the dog was between 9 and 11 years of age. Thankfully, the pet parent gave us permission to perform a complete dental examination. Initially, we found an enormous amount of tartar.

Canine dental tartar buildup

Canine dental tartar buildup

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Once we safely sedated the dog and removed the tartar, we could see the significant number of diseased teeth ranging from Grade 1-4. Many teeth clean up great and can be saved. However Grade 4 teeth are no longer salvageable and surgically removing them protects the remaining teeth.  The bacteria and infection fester under the gums on Grade 4 teeth and can eventually turn black.  All of the bacteria under the gums which start as invisible liquid, calcifies, hardens and basically just sits on, infects and eats away at the root and bone on a living patient killing whatever it contacts slowly and silently.

Look at the black disease growing down the root of these teeth. This is what people don’t see because they are not in the dental and surgery rooms with their pets.  Most people would not let their own mouths ever get this way.  We wish more people could know the truth about what is happening under their pet’s gum line. If their pets could talk, we know pet owners would want to help their pets with proactive dental care.

Canine dental black gum disease

Canine dental – gum disease

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We can all prevent Grade 4 dental disease once we get people over all the misinformation that’s floating out there. Our goal is to educate people about the safety of anesthesia if it’s done correctly. Pets receive many more benefits than risks from great proactive dental care.

Veterinarians see dogs and cats with all stages of diseased mouths like these almost daily. However, pet owners because their beloved pet is still eating and acting normal might delay care. I wish pets could talk to their owners. Unfortunately, most people and vets aren’t psychics and we don’t have X-ray vision. That would certainly help us know the truth and encourage all of us to help pets sooner. The truth is we can’t see the real problem until all the teeth are probed, cleaned, and X-rayed under anesthesia. It’s a guessing game until you get in there.  Some people are also so scared of the idea of anesthesia in their pets that they become paralyzed, procrastinate or just ignore the problem which just makes everything worse for everyone. The reality is the sooner and more often all the teeth are checked and cleaned, the safer and better it is for the patient.

Dogs have 42 teeth. Cats and people have 32 teeth. We had to surgically extract 22 diseased teeth on this boy. We cleaned the rest of the infection from this dog’s mouth to preserve the other 22 teeth. Cleaning properly under the gum line with an ultrasonic scaler and anesthesia allows bone to regenerate which reverses grade of disease significantly. This is a basic necessity for the pet’s health and well-being.

Grade 4 dental - canine teeth removed

Grade 4 - 22 canine teeth removed

 

 

 

 

 

 

This older dog did great under anesthesia and recovered smoothly. Yes, that is the normal and typical anesthetic recovery we have in a practice that performs over 500 dental procedures a year. This procedure is saving this dog from silent, daily suffering – saving his heart and organs from slow, quiet but deadly infection. Dental disease is reversible the sooner we get in there.  These extraction procedures can require anywhere from 1-2.5 hours of anesthetic time when proactive dental care is delayed. Our goal is to minimize anesthetic time, but it faster to clean teeth than to remove teeth properly. Thank goodness we got to him in time. If this pet owner would have waited another 6 months to do a dental, he could have lost all his teeth or the infection from his mouth could have diseased his heart valves permanently.

This is a photo of our good boy case study. This is a post-op after extracting his painful diseased teeth and suturing everything up. These cases like him usually start eating well the very first night. His rotting teeth were hurting with every bite. Now they are gone and so is the pain.

Canine post-op dental extraction

Canine post-op dental extraction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Positive outcome

The pet parent tells us now when her dog is resting, he is very content and he doesn’t grind his teeth anymore, nor does he have that sad face at night. He is more playful and is now happy 100% of the time. He is acting like a puppy again. He smells wonderful and she welcomes all the kisses from him she can get!

Regular dental check-ups will help insure this dog stays happy and comfortable for as long as possible.

Moral of the story

Dental cleanings reverse disease by 1-1.5 grades by removing tartar under the gum line so the bone can heal itself and grow back.  Therefore stage 1, 2, and 3 teeth cleanings are quicker, safer and save the teeth. If people and veterinarians allow teeth to get to stage 4 by not doing prophylactic regular dentals, then there is a point of no return for the tooth and all the end stage organs it’s been silently killing.

In addition, the risk of adverse effects by anesthesia is small. AAHA accredited hospitals like ours who have a proactive, highly skilled veterinary team that properly support their patients every time with an IV (intravenous) catheter, IV fluids, warmth, and continuous blood pressure (BP) monitoring will help insure that pet anesthesia can be just as safe as human anesthesia.

Recommended Reading:

Anesthesia – is it safe? Yes, it can be if all the safety protocols are in place. The safety questions you can ask of your veterinary team or hospital.

Dr. Joe Martins, DVM, Belle Mead Animal Hospital

Dr. Joe Martins, DVM, Belle Mead Animal Hospital

Dr. Joe Martins, DVM, Belle Mead Animal Hospital

Posted in Exotics General Pets Veterinary Services on Aug 15, 2023 | no responses.

As veterinarians charged with the health and well-being of your pets, we cannot encourage pet parents enough to microchip their pet. It is a simple and inexpensive procedure that can reunite you with your pet if it is ever accidentally lost or even stolen.

Dog running outside

To remind pet owners to have their pets microchipped and to keep the registration information up-to-date, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) joined together to create “Check the Chip Day” which falls in mid- August every year.

We have said it before, and it’s worth a reminder: one dog or cat is reunited every five seconds in our country because of a simple microchip.

We read stories every day of lost pets all over the country being reunited with their owners thanks to a microchip. Remember the story of Wesley we told you about in an earlier Blog? Wesley is a Labrador who wandered away from his home in Hillsborough about two days before Superstorm Sandy struck New Jersey. The family, who were clients of Belle Mead Animal Hospital, were devastated about the loss of their dog. After missing for 17 months, Wesley was found wandering the streets. His microchip was scanned, and he was happily reunited with his family.

If you have not done so already, please make an appointment with your family veterinarian to have this simple procedure done.

If your pet is microchipped, take a few moments to check that the registration is current. You should have an online account created with the manufacturer of the microchip where you can access the registration and update the information if necessary. Make sure that all of the information, particularly your phone number(s) and address, are correct.

Please visit our Recommended Reading list below to learn more.

Recommended Reading:

Keep your dog safe with a secure collar and proper identification

Wesley and Dr. Stephens make Channel 7 Eyewitness News

 Joe Martins, DVM, Belle Mead Animal Hospital

Joe Martins, DVM, Belle Mead Animal Hospital

Joe Martins, DVM, Belle Mead Animal Hospital

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Posted in General Pets Veterinary Services on Jul 12, 2023 | no responses.

We are often asked by our clients why their cat is displaying various negative behaviors. These behaviors range from inappropriate scratching, aggression toward other pets or people, excessive shyness or hiding, and urinating or defecating outside the litter box.

Once any medical issues are ruled out, the negative behaviors can be turned to positive simply by enriching your cat’s environment.

Why is environmental enrichment necessary?

Cats are predatory by nature. Therefore, they exhibit territorial behavior and are easily under stimulated if the essential elements in their home environment don’t exist to prevent boredom while ensuring the cat’s security. When these needs are not met, undesirable behaviors develop.

When a cat does not expend energy on hunting, his/her pent up frustration and stress can easily be redirected into behaviors such as marking territory by scratching the furniture, exhibiting aggression, and litter box issues.

Other things such as variable schedules, decreased interactions with caregivers, and unexpected physical manipulations can result in anxiety and hiding behaviors.

Ways to enrich a cat’s environment

Proper environmental enrichment means making the cat’s home more physically, socially and temporally complex. This sounds hard, but it is actually easy to do. Here are some suggestions:

1. Make a variety of engaging toys available that can stimulate their hunting instinct through play. Rotate toys to prevent boredom. Offer structured play sessions with string toys and lasers – cats enjoy interaction with their human caregivers as much as other feline playmates.

Taurus Scorpio Xmas toy

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Ideally, provide one litter box per cat plus one. Litter boxes should be placed in easily accessible locations away from food. Scoop daily – cats are fastidious and will shy away from dirty litter.

3. Scratching posts are essential. Sisal is highly recommended as a first choice. Pay attention to your cat’s preference for horizontal and vertical options and offer more than one type and material.

4. Tall, multi-tiered cat trees provide safe resting areas as well as scratching and play opportunities.

Social enrichment - sisal scratching post

Social enrichment – sisal scratching post

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to mitigate aggressive behavior

Cats often display aggressive behaviors as a result of feeling threatened. This anxiety and stress can be brought on by the presence of other pets in the home, (new or existing), the scent of other cats brought into the home, or overly excited play with children.

Therefore, it’s important to provide cats with plenty of hiding opportunities in the home where they can retreat and relax when feeling anxious. Cats will naturally gravitate to high shelves, tall furniture, pet hammocks or cat trees where they can perch above the ground and feel safe. Cardboard boxes and crinkle bags provide hiding places at ground level as well as play opportunities to reduce stress.

Cats resting on perch

 

 

 

 

 

 

A good guideline to follow is to have one resting space and hiding space per cat in each room the cat frequents.

Remember to always rule out medical issues first

Simply by understanding why your cat is displaying negative behavior is the first step in correcting the behavior.

Remember, underlying illness must always be ruled out first. Missing the litter box and misplaced aggression can be the result of several medical issues that must be diagnosed by your veterinarian. Never hesitate to contact your veterinarian to discuss your cat’s behavior issues.

Recommended Reading:

Kitty Litter Box 101

Some pet behaviors may be related to hidden illness

Dr. Joe Martins, DVM, Belle Mead Animal Hospital

Dr. Joe Martins, DVM, Belle Mead Animal Hospital

Dr. Joe Martins, DVM, Belle Mead Animal Hospital

Posted in General Pets Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Services on Jun 20, 2023 | no responses.

Animals can suffer from either high or low blood pressure, just like humans.  If left untreated, it can have quite debilitating effects.  The signs of high blood pressure (hypertension) can be very subtle and insidious.  This is why it is important to have your senior pet’s blood pressure checked on a routine basis.

Dr. Heather Simon and cat patient CelticIt is not uncommon for our pets to have hypertension with no clinical signs at all. In humans, hypertension is often referred to as a “silent killer” because there may be no warning signs or symptoms.

Humans tend to develop primary hypertension or idiopathic hypertension (no known underlying cause). Often there is a genetic predisposition.  Dogs and cats, on the other hand, typically develop secondary hypertension.  Their high blood pressure is usually the result of some other underlying cause or disease process.

The most common causes in animals are chronic renal (kidney) disease, hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism.  Therefore, hypertension in our dogs and cats can be an indicator that something else is going on.  It should always prompt further testing.

If hypertension is left untreated, it can have many side effects.  Hypertension can affect the eyes, kidneys, heart and brain.  Typically, the treatment is to first treat the underlying cause (i.e. if there is hyperthyroidism, get the the thyroid disease under control).

Secondly, oral medications can be used to decrease the blood pressure.  The following are some of the common sequela to untreated hypertension:

Eyes:  The vessels in the retina are extremely sensitive to high blood pressure.  It is not uncommon for a pet (usually cats) to present with vision loss secondary to retinal hemorrhage or detachment.  They can also present with hyphema (frank blood in the eye).

Celtic Cat patient Belle Mead Animal Hospital June 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kidneys:   Although kidney disease is often seen as an underlying cause for hypertension, high blood pressure can actually make kidney disease worse.  Kidney disease and hypertension can be a vicious cycle – one exacerbating the other.  Approximately 75% of cats older than 7 years will develop kidney disease or hyperthyroidism.  Of that group, 75% will go on to develop high blood pressure. So it is imperative to check blood pressures in ANY patient with known kidney disease or thyroid disease.

Heart: Hypertension can also have deleterious effects on the heart.  High blood pressure increases the “load” that the heart has to deal with and consequently, the heart has to work much harder than normal.  The myocardium (heart muscles) can become enlarged and dilated.  The enlarged heart muscles are more sensitive to injury. High blood pressure can also cause abnormal heart rhythms or gallop rhythms, especially in patients with hyperthyroidism.  Anytime the heart is significantly affected or compromised, sudden respiratory distress or even death is unfortunately a possible outcome.

Brain: There are many tiny blood vessels in the brain. When an animal has hypertension, blood vessels can become diseased and susceptible to injury. The small fragile blood vessels in the brain are at risk for hemorrhage.  And areas of the brain are susceptible to either ischemia (injury due to a shortage of oxygen) or swelling.  When this happens, patients can have behavior changes, act dull or depressed, circle, fall over or even seizure.

CASE STUDY:

Celtic, a male neutered 15 year old domestic short haired cat, presented to Belle Mead Animals Hospital for vision trouble.  On physical exam, Celtic had extremely dilated pupils and was in fact blind. Torturous and ruptured blood vessels were noted on examination of his retinas.

Celtic had very high blood pressure (hypertension) which was easily documented with a petMAP (small machine specifically for veterinary medicine to get blood pressure measurements).  The high blood pressure prompted me to immediately check Celtic’s blood work and urine (including thyroid levels).

Celtic had significant elevations in his kidney enzymes and was diagnosed with chronic kidney disease and secondary hypertension.  He was immediately started on an anti-hypertension medication as well as treatment and supportive care for his kidney disease.

(Authored by Heather Simon, VMD)

Posted in General Pets News on May 02, 2023 | no responses.

The Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show is billed as America’s second-longest continuously held sporting event. The 2023 event will be held May 6-9 at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, New York, and our own Veterinary Technicians Christine Hamill and Rachel Kalinowska will be participating with their dogs!

“I will be showing Charley,” said Christine. “Charley is a 10 1/2 year-old female Rough Collie. She loves to show, so we decided to enter. Rachel will be showing Rhys, a Smooth Collie who is almost 7 years old.”

Christine went on to explain that Rhys and Charley actually have the same canine mom; Charley was bred from Christine’s collie Slinky’s first litter, and Rhys was from Slinky’s  second litter.

Below are some photos of Christine with Charley. The first two photos are from her Veteran Participation at the Collie Club of America National Specialty held in March 2023 in Fort Wayne, Indiana; the third photo is from a show in Maryland taken in the fall of 2022; the fourth photo is from spring of 2023 when Charley won Best of Breed from the Veteran Class at two Collie specialties in New Jersey!

And following is a collage of Rachel with Rhys featuring pictures from local dog shows and Rhys enjoying a hike on a “weekend off.”

BMAH Vet Tech Rachel with Rhys

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Westminster Kennel Club is known for using education to raise awareness and encourage owners to conscientiously select dogs that are the correct match for the owner’s home and lifestyle. The annual dog show includes the Masters Agility Championship and Masters Obedience Championship where dogs from all backgrounds are eligible to compete. A dog-lover’s delight!

Join us in wishing Christine/Charley and Rachel/Rhys, much success at this year’s event! 

Recommended Reading:

A Westminster Adventure with Vet Tech Christine Hamill and Wyatt

Dr. Somjen competes in Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show

Belle Mead Animal Hospital, Your Other Family Doctors

Handling Every Pet with Love Every Day!

As Certified Fear Free Professionals, our Mission is to prevent and alleviate fear, anxiety and stress in pets by inspiring and educating the people who care for them. Visit Fear Free Happy Homes here and join at no cost!

 

 

Posted in Events News on Apr 25, 2023 | no responses.

Did you know that your pet’s bad breath is a sign of pain and infection? Your pet just might be silently suffering with dental pain!

 

 

 

 

Join us for a FREE Pet Dental Seminar and FREE Dental Exam for your pet!

Saturday, May 6, 2023, 1 pm at Belle Mead Animal Hospital

 

Learn and Experience:

  • What’s involved in a pet dentistry
  • Signs of oral pain
  • Free Dental Product Samples
  • How to brush your pet’s teeth
  • The importance of dental X-Rays

 

Seats are limited. Refreshments included! 

Please RSVP by calling 908-874-4447 or Email CustomerService@bmvet.com 

Belle Mead Animal Hospital, Your Other Family Doctors

Handling Every Pet with Love Every Day!

As Certified Fear Free Professionals, our Mission is to prevent and alleviate fear, anxiety and stress in pets by inspiring and educating the people who care for them. Visit Fear Free Happy Homes here and join at no cost!

 

  

 

Posted in General Pets Veterinary Services on Mar 15, 2023 | no responses.

There are many different factors that can influence whether your new puppy grows into a well behaved and friendly dog or one that is more shy or aggressive. You may not realize how much early life experiences can and do affect your puppy well into adulthood. However, there are steps you can take to ensure a positive outcome.

Puppy

A puppy is born with an immature brain and neurological system that needs additional time and experience to develop appropriately. Although dogs may inherit particular behavior characteristics based on genetics, research has shown that life experience plays a big role in a puppy’s development.

Early life experiences, even in puppies from 3-16 days old, can affect whether or not the puppy’s brain and dispositions develop in a way that allows them to handle stress later in life.

The primary socialization period for dogs is approximately 3 weeks to 16 weeks. This is the period when they are most open to learning new things, developing acceptable social behaviors, and practicing life skills that will serve them the rest of their lives. This is a critical window of time in their life that should never be overlooked. This is when puppy socialization is most important.

Puppy socialization includes exposure to other animals, play opportunities with litter mates or other puppies, and supervised interactions with young children. Puppies benefit from a variety of new sights, sounds and smells.

Two dogs interacting for the first time

A lack of early socialization can predispose puppies to fear, anxiety and aggressive behavior later in life. In general, the more new and positive experiences a puppy has, the more well-adjusted that puppy will become later in life.

Keep in mind that it is important not to overwhelm young puppies, especially those that are initially shy or timid. Owners should strive to create positive experiences while at the same time being patient with a shy puppy and allowing them to socialize at their own pace.  Strangers and other animals can be very scary or intimidating for them.

Even though the early socialization window may close by the time the puppy is 16 weeks old, that doesn’t mean learning and socialization should ever stop. Every new experience, regardless of age, is an opportunity for your dog to learn.

Owners of young dogs should make an ongoing effort to train and socialize their dogs well into adulthood.  You can do this by introducing your dog to new people, other animals and new situations on a continuing basis.

adult dogs interacting

Remember, wellness exams are the first step in ensuring that your puppy or older dog is healthy. Sometimes, a dog will display aggressive behavior if an underlying illness or medical condition needs treatment, unbeknownst to the owner without a veterinarian’s advice.

The number one reason why dogs are given up or end up at animal shelters is due to behavior issues. Puppy socialization greatly increases the chance of the dog being more social and particularly less dog aggressive.

 Joe Martins, DVM, Belle Mead Animal Hospital

Joe Martins, DVM, Belle Mead Animal Hospital

Joe Martins, DVM, Belle Mead Animal Hospital

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